Are there publications on the TCI?

The Center of Well-Being has assembled a selection of books and research studies that provide much of the empirical support for the theory of personality in the science of well-being.


Cloninger CR. Feeling Good: The Science of Well-Being.  Oxford University Press, New York, 2004.
Cloninger CR. Personality & Psychopathology.  American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1999.
Cloninger CR. Comorbidity in Anxiety & Mood Disorders.  Amer. Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1990.
Gershon ES & Cloninger CR.  Genetic Approaches in Mental Disorders. Amer. Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1994.


Cloninger CR. (2009).  The Science of Well-Being and Comprehensive Diagnosis.  Chapter 29 in Psychiatric Diagnosis: Challenges & Prospects, edited by Ihsan M. Salloum and Juan E. Mezzich.  New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 289-296.

Manier E, Ordona T, Cloninger CR. (2009). Rehabilitation: Reducing antisocial potential by increasing capacity for well-being.  In The Life-Course of Antisocial Behavior: Aggression to Delinquency to Crime, edited by Matthew DeLisi and Kevin Beaver.  Jones & Bartlett Publishers, in press.

Cloninger CR. The Direction of Evolution: Growth toward Self-awareness, Altruism, and Well-Being.  In Man the Hunted: Altruism and Well-being.  Sussman RW and Cloninger CR. Chapter for book in preparation.

Celikel FC, Kose S, Cumurcu BE, Erkorkmaz U, Sayar K, Borckardt JJ, Cloninger CR. Cloninger’s Temperament and Character dimensions of personality in patients with Major Depressive Disorder.  Comprehensive Psychiatry, in press.

Cloninger CR. (2009). Assessment of Personality, in New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, second edition, edited by M. Gelder, N. Andreasen, J. Lopez-Ibor, J. Geddes. Oxford, Oxford University Press, in press.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM. (2009). Personality Disorders, in Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry,  9th edition, edited by BJ Sadock & VA Sadock.  Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, in press.

Smith MJ, Cloninger CR, Harms MP, Csernansky JG. (2008).  Temperament and character as schizophrenia-related endophenotypes in non-psychotic siblings.  Schizophr Res, 104, 198-205.

Cloninger CR. (2008). The Psychobiological Theory Of Temperament And Character: Comment on Farmer and Goldberg. PsycholAssess, Sep;20(3):292-9; discussion 300-4. PMID: 18778165.

Martinotti G, Cloninger CR, Janiri L. (2008). Temperament and character inventory dimensions and anhedonia in detoxified substance-dependent subjects.  Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 34(2):177-183.  PMID 18293234

Calabrese DR, Wang L, Harms MP, Ramanather JT, Barch DM, Cloninger CR, Thompson PA, Miller MI, Csernansky JG. (2008).  Cingulate gyrus neuroanatomy in schizophrenia subjects and their non-psychotic siblings.  Schizophr Res, 104, 61-70.

Martinotti G, Mandelli L, Di Nicola M, Serretti A, Fossati A, Borroni S, Cloninger CR, Janiri L. (2008).  Psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised: Personality, psychopathology, and attachment styles.  Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49, 514-522.

Nery FG, Hatch JP, Glahn DC, Nicoletta MA, Monku ES, Najt P, Fonseca M, Bowden CL, Cloninger CR, Soares JC. (2008). Temperament and Character Traits in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Associations with Comorbid Alcoholism or Anxiety Disorders.  Journal of Psychiatric Research, June; 569-577.

Sullivan S, Cloninger CR, Przybeck TR, Klein S. (2007).  Personality characteristics in obesity and relationship with successful weight loss.  Int J Obes (Lond.), 31, 667-674.

Grucza RA, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. (2007).  Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in a Community Sample. Compr Psychiatry, Mar-Apr;48(2):124-31, PMID: 17292702.

Cloninger CR. (2007).  Foreword.  In Personality Disorders: Toward the DSM-V.  Edited by William O’Donohue, Katherine A. Fowler, Scott O. Lilienfeld.  Sage Publications, pp. vii-xvi.  

Cloninger, CR. (2007). Beyond Management to Cure:  Enhancing the Positive Dimensions of Personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 4, pp. 154-199.

Cloninger CR. (2007). Spirituality and the Science of Feeling Good. South Med J, Jul; 100(7):  740-3 PMID: 17639764.

Huber SJ, Cloninger CR. (2007). Sleep and Personality Disorders. Informa Healthcare, June; (10) pp 125-135.

Anckarsater H, Cloninger CR. (2007).  The genetics of empathy and its disorders:  In Empathy in Mental Illness and Health, Tom FD Farrow, Peter W.R Woodruff (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp. 261-288.

Cloninger CR. (2006).  The science of well-being: An integrated approach to mental health and its disorders.  World Psychiatry, 5, 71-76.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR. (2006).  Can personality assessment predict future depression?  A twelve-month follow-up of 631 subjects.  J Affective Disorder, 92 (1), 35-44.

Cloninger CR. (2006).  Fostering Spirituality and Well-Being in Clinical Practice. Psychiatric Annals, March; 36(3):1-6.

Cloninger CR. (2006).  Differentiating personality deviance, normality, and well-being by the seven-factor psychobiological model.  In Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality, edited by Stephen Strack, Second edition.  Springer Publishing Co, pp. 65-70.

Cloninger CR. (2006).  Personality as a Dynamic Psychobiological System, in Dimensional Models of Personality Disorders: Refining the Research Agenda for DSM-V, edited by Thomas A.Widiger, Eric Simonsen, Paul Sirovatka, Darrel A. Regier). Washington DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 73-76.

Cloninger CR. (2006). The Science of Well-Being: An integrated approach to mental health and its disorders. Psychiatr Danub,  Dec;18(3-4):PP. 281-24.  

Serretti A, MandelliL, Lorenzi C, Landoni S, Calati R, Insacco C, Cloninger CR. (2006). Temperament and character in mood disorders: influence of DRD4, SERTPR, TPH and MAO-A polymorphisms.  Neuropsychobiology, 53(1): pp. 9-16.

Goldberg L, Johnson J, Eber H., Hogan R, Ashton M, Cloninger R, Gough H. (2006). International Personality Item Pool and the Future of Public-Domain Personality Measures:  Journal of Research in Personality,  pp 84-96.

Cloninger CR. (2005). Genetics of Personality Disorders.  In The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders (edited by John M. Oldham, Andrew E. Skodal, Donna S. Bender).  Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press, Chapter 9, pp. 143-154.

Cloninger CR. (2005).  Role of Personality.  In Psychogenic Movement Disorders: Neurology and Neuropsychiatry, (edited by Mark Hallett, Stanley Fahn, Joseph Jankovic, Anthony E. Lang, C. Robert Cloninger, Stuart C. Yudofsky), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 122-130.

Cloninger CR. (2005). How does personality influence mortality in the elderly?  Psychosom Med, Nov-Dec: 67(6):  PP. 849-40.

Grucza RA, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. (2005).  Personality as a mediator of demographic risk factors for suicide attempts in a community sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 46, 214-222.

Hansenne M, Delhez M, Cloninger CR. (2005).  Psychometric properties of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised in a Belgian sample.  J Person Assess, 85, 40-49.

Pelissolo A, Mallet L, Baleyte JM, Michel G, Cloninger CR, Allilaire JF, Jouvent R. (2005).  The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R):  Psychometric characteristics of the French version.  Acta Psychiatr Scand, 112, 126-133.

Cunningham-Williams RM,Grucza RA, Cottler LB, Womack SB, Books SJ, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. (2005).  Prevalence and predictors of pathological gambling: Results from the St. Louis personality, health and lifestyle (SLPHL) study.  Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39(4), 377-390.

Cloninger CR. (2004).  Treatment of Somatization Disorder (“Sickly”). In Treatment Companion: DSM-IV-TR Casebook, (edited by RL Spitzer, MB First, M Gibbon, JBW Williams), American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., Washington, DC, pg. 306-314.

Cloninger CR. (2003). Completing the psychobiological architecture of human personality development: Temperament, Character, & Coherence. In U. M. Staudinger & U. E. R. Lindenberger (Eds.), Understanding human development: Dialogues with lifespan psychology (pp. 159-182). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gillespie NA, Cloninger CR, Heath AC, Martin NG. (2003).  The genetic and environmental relationship between Cloninger’s dimensions of temperament and character.  Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1931-1946.

Gusnard DA, Ollinger JM, Shulman GL, Cloninger CR, Price JL, Van Essen DC, Raichle ME. (2003). Persistence  and brain circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 100(6):3479-3484.

Cloninger CR. (2002). The discovery of susceptibility genes for mental disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99(21), 13365-13367.

Constantino JN, Cloninger CR, Clarke AR, Hashemi B, Przybeck T. (2002). Application of the seven-factor model of personality to early childhood.  Psychiatry Research, 109:229-243.

Cloninger CR. (2002). Psychobiology and treatment of borderline personality disorder.  Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 2:60-65.

Vedeniapin AB, Anokhin AA, Sirevaag E, Rohrbaugh JW, Cloninger CR. (2001).  Visual P300 and the Self-directedness Scale of the Temperament-Character Inventory.  Psychiatry Research, 101:145-156.

Freedman R, Leonard S, Olincy A, Kaufmann CA, Malaspina D, Cloninger CR, Svrakic D, Faraone SV, Tsuang MT. (2001).  Evidence for the Multigenetic Inheritance of Schizophrenia.  Am J Med Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 105:794-800.

Cloninger CR. (2000). Biology of personality dimensions. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 13, 611-616.

Cloninger CR. (2000). A Practical Way to Diagnosis Personality Disorder: A Proposal.  Journal of Personality Disorder, 14:99-108.

Cloninger CR. (1999). A new conceptual paradigm from genetics and psychobiology for the science of mental health. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 174-186.

Peirson AR, Heuchert JW, Thomala L, Berk M, Plein H, Cloninger CR. (1999).  Relationship Between Serotonin and the Temperament and Character Inventory.  Psychiatry Research, 89:29-37.

Cloninger CR. (1999).  Genetics of Substance Abuse.  In: Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment (Second Edition). M Galanter and HD Kleber, (eds.), American Psychiatric Press, Inc, Washington, DC, pgs 59-66.

Cloninger CR, Kaufmann CA, Faraone SV, et al. (1998).  A genome-wide search for schizophrenia susceptibility loci: The NIMH Genetics Initiative & Millennium Consortium.  American Journal of Medical Genetics, 275-281.

Cloninger CR. (1998).  Genetics and psychobiology of the seven factor model of personality.  Annual Review of Psychiatry, 17, 63-92.

Cloninger CR, Bayon C, & Svrakic DM. (1998). Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: A model of fundamental states as personality types. Journal of Affective Disorders, 51, 21-32.

Cloninger CR, Van Eerdewegh P, Goate A, Edenberg HJ. Blangero J, Hesselbrock V, et al. (1998). Anxiety proneness linked to epistatic loci in genome scan of human personality traits. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 313-317.

de la Rie SM, Duijsens IJ, Cloninger CR. (1998). Temperament, Character and Personality Disorders.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 12:362-372.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic NM. (1998). Psychobiological Model of Personality.  Neuroscience News, 1:40-46.

Ruchkin VV, Eisemann M, Cloninger CR. (1998). Behaviour/Emotional Problems in Male Juvenile Delinquents and Controls in Russia: the role of personality traits.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98:231-236.

Tome MB, Cloninger CR, Watson JP, Isaac MT. (1997).  Serotonergic autoreceptor blockade in the reduction of antidepressant latency: personality variables and response to paroxetine and pindolol.  Journal of Affective Disorders, 44:101-109, 1997.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic NM, & Svrakic DM. (1997). Role of personality self-organization in development of mental order and disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 881-906.

Cloninger CR, & Svrakic DM. (1997). Integrative psychobiological approach to psychiatric assessment and treatment. Psychiatry, 60, 120-141.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Svrakic NM. (1997). A Multidimensional Psychobiological Model of Violence.  In Biosocial Bases of Violence. Raine A, Brennan P, Farrington DP, Mednick SA (eds). New York: Plenum.

Cloninger CR. (1997). Multilocus genetics of schizophrenia.  Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 10:5-10.

Sigvardsson S, Bohman M, Cloninger CR. (1996).  Replication of the Stockholm adoption study of alcoholism: Confirmatory cross-fostering analysis.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 681-687.

Cloninger CR, Adolfsson R, Svrakic NM. (1996). Mapping genes for human personality.  Nature Genetics, 12:3-4.

Svrakic NM, Svrakic DM, Cloninger CR. (1996). A general quantitative theory of personality development: Fundamentals of a self-organizing psychobiological complex.  Development and Psychopathology,  8:247-272.

Stallings MC, Hewitt JK, Cloninger CR, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. (1996). Genetic and environmental structure of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire:  three or four temperament dimensions?  J Personality & Social Psychology, 70:127-140.

Zuckerman M, Cloninger CR. (1996). Relationships between Cloninger’s, Zuckerman’s, and Eysenck’s dimensions of personality.  Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 283-285.

Cloninger CR. (1996).  A psychobiological model of temperament and character:  Fundamental findings for use in clinical practice.  In New Research in Psychiatry.  Häfner H, EM Wolpert (eds).  Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 95-106.

Battaglia M, Przybeck TR, Bellodi L, Cloninger CR. (1996).  Temperament dimensions explain the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders.   Comprehensive Psychiatry, 37:292-298.

Cloninger CR. (1995). The Psychobiological Regulation of Social Cooperation.  Nature Medicine, 1(7):14-15.

Cloninger CR, Sigvardsson S, Przybeck TR, Svrakic DM. (1995). Personality Antecedents of Alcoholism in a National Area Probability Sample.  Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 245:239-244.

Yutzy SH, Cloninger CR, Guze SB, Pribor EF, Martin RL, Kathol RG, Smith GR, Strain JJ. (1995). DSM-IV Field Trial: Testing a new proposal for somatization disorder.  Am J Psychiatry,  152(1):97-101.

Heath AC, Cloninger CR, Martin NG. (1994).  Testing a model for the genetic structure of personality:  A comparison of the personality systems of Cloninger and Eysenck.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 762-775.

Cloninger CR. (1994). The genetic structure of personality and learning: a phylogenetic perspective. Clinical Genetics, 46, 124-137.

Cloninger CR. (1994).  Somatization Disorder, in DSM-IV Sourcebook.  APA Press, Washington, DC.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM. (1994).  Differentiating normal and abnormal personality by the seven-factor personality model.  In Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality, Strack S, Lorr M (eds.).  Springer Publishing, pp 40-64.

Cloninger CR. (1994).  Tests of alternative Models of the relationship of schizophrenia and affective psychoses.  In Genetic Approaches in Mental Disorders, Gershon ES, Cloninger CR (eds.),.  American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, pp. 149-162.

Cloninger CR. (1994). Temperament and Personality.  Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4:266-273.

Svrakic DM, Whitehead C, Przybeck,TR, Cloninger CR. (1993).  Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven factor model of temperament and character.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 991-999.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, & Przybeck TR. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975-990.

Cloninger CR, Dinwiddie SH. (1993).  Genetic risk factors in susceptibility to substance abuse.  In Biological Basis of Substance Abuse,  Korenman SG, Barchas JD (eds.).  Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 405-412.

Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. (1992).  Mood states and personality traits.  Journal of Affective Disorders, 24, 2147-226.

Cloninger CR, Przybeck TR, & Svrakic DM. (1991). The tridimensional personality questionnaire: U. S. normative data. Psychological Reports, 69, 1047-1057.

Cloninger CR, Sigvardsson S, & Bohman M. (1988). Childhood personality predicts alcohol abuse in young adults. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 12, 494-505.

Cloninger CR. (1987). A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants: a proposal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 573-587.

Cloninger CR. (1987). Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. Science, 236, 410-416.

Cloninger CR. (1986). A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiatric Developments, 3, 167-226.

Cloninger CR, Rice J, & Reich T. (1979). Multifactorial inheritance with cultural transmission and assortative mating. III. Family structure and the analysis of separation experiments. American Journal of Human Genetics, 31, 366-388.

Cloninger CR. Rice J, & Reich T. (1979). Multifactorial inheritance with cultural transmission and assortative mating. II. A general model of combined polygenic and cultural inheritance. American Journal of Human Genetics, 31, 176-198.

Cloninger CR, Reich T, & Guze SB. (1975). The multifactorial model of disease transmission: II. Sex differences in the familial transmission of sociopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 11-22.

Garcia, D., Lester, N., Cloninger, K. M., & Cloninger, C. R., (2017). The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-3). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_91-1.

Garcia, D., Cloninger, K. M., Lester, N., & Cloninger, C. R. (2017). Self-directedness. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-3). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1163-1.

Garcia, D., Lester, N., Cloninger, K. M., & Cloninger, C. R. (2017). Cooperativeness. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-3). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2268-1.

Garcia, D., Rosenberg, P., Lester, N., Cloninger, K. M., & Cloninger, C. R. (2017). Self-transcendence. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-3). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2269-1.

A more complete list of publications anD A biography of C. Robert Cloninger, MD can be found at